Multiple Sclerosis is not completely curable. but you should take some important steps to control its symptoms. if you and anyone you know suffer from Multiple sclerosis then read out this article till the end to get to know its types, causes, and treatment.
Multiple sclerosis affects your central nervous system. it is a long-term debilitating ailment. it affects also the brain and spinal cord. Multiple sclerosis happens when the protective layer covering the nerve fibers and immune system invades myelin. it causes disruption of communication between the brain and other parts of the body. As a result, the ailment weakens the nerves and their permanent damage.
Types of Multiple Sclerosis:-
It occurs when the immune system attacks the myelin. myelin is a kind of protective sheath that involves the axons of neurons. and enabling them to send electrical impulses. Multiple sclerosis is four types which are below
- Clinically isolated syndrome:- It is the first stage of Multiple sclerosis symptoms. in this neurologists classify it as a clinically isolated syndrome. also, it is not necessarily that those who have CIS will develop multiple sclerosis.
- Relapsing-remitting Multiple Sclerosis:- it is the most spread form of Multiple sclerosis. those who have Relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis may experience relapse or a worsening phase with acute symptoms.
- Primary progressive Multiple Sclerosis:- Those diagnosed with Primary progressive multiple sclerosis may exhibit symptoms that gradually deteriorate without any stage of remission or relapse.
- Secondary progressive Multiple Sclerosis:- Mostly people diagnosed with Relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis initially in due course. those who have this type of multiple sclerosis will have nerve damage and the symptoms aggravate progressively.
Multiple Sclerosis Symptoms:-
Its symptoms vary from person to person. it can be fatal for many and in some symptoms are less severe and require no treatment. below are a few common symptoms
- The problem in Vision:- In this case, the patient experiences short-term vision loss, eye pain, color blindness, blurry vision, and so on.
- Fatigue:- This is the most common symptom of multiple sclerosis. in this problem, the person feels too much exhausted and faces difficulty in doing daily tasks. people also may feel dizziness, headache, muscle weakness, etc.
- Tingling and Numbness:- Abnormal sensations are the common symptoms of multiple sclerosis. sometimes in various sections of your body, it occurs as numbness or tingling. in the body like the legs, or trunk which persists for a few days.
- Stiffness and weakness:- Its other symptoms are muscle issues. it causes abnormal contraction of muscles and painful spasms, stiffness, etc., and also spasticity movements.
- Feel Pain:- Multiple sclerosis causes face pain, trunk aching, and limbs, feel the burn, while neck movement then feels electric shock-like sensations, etc. It can also cause musculoskeletal pains like joint, neck, and back pain.
- Move and walk difficulty:- Mobility problems make the walk and moving very difficult. specifically, if you have spasticity and muscle weakness. in this condition, people feel ataxia, tremor, clumsiness, dizziness, vertigo, etc.
- Cognitive Difficulties:- in this problem, people feel difficulty in learning, understanding, inattentiveness, fluency disorder, and many more.
- Depression and anxiety:- Multiple sclerosis’s other symptoms are depression and anxiety. in many cases where a person who suffers from Multiple sclerosis feels mood swings, laughs, burst into tears, and shouts without any reason.
- Sexual Dysfunction:- In this condition, some people who have multiple Sclerosis may feel libido reduction, erectile dysfunction, or many difficulties with orgasm and arousal.
- Problems in Bladder:- Multiple sclerosis can cause bladder-related problems, and it can be sometimes life-threatening. it includes urinary tract infections, incontinence, evacuating bladder difficulty, etc.
- Swallowing Difficulties:- Multiple sclerosis affect the muscles involved in speech and swallowing, difficulty articulating words.
Causes of Multiple Sclerosis:-
- Pathogenic infection:- Many researchers consider that contact with contagious viruses for example Epstein-Barr virus can lead to Multiple sclerosis in due course of time.
- Genetic Factors:- There is an increased risk of developing multiple sclerosis due to genetic variations. but Multiple sclerosis is not inherited directly. it occurs by having close relatives with MS, such as parents or siblings.
- Environmental factors:- According to research the reason for multiple sclerosis is the environment where you live. those people who live far from the equator have a higher number of Multiple sclerosis. because in this area people get less exposure to the sun. which causes lower vitamin D. Less level of vitamin D is a major risk factor for Multiple sclerosis.
- Immune system functioning:- Multiple sclerosis is an autoimmune disease. and in this condition, the immune system attacks healthy cells. so autoimmune diseases cause multiple sclerosis.
Risk Factors for Multiple Sclerosis:-
- Gender:- Women mainly develop Multiple sclerosis more than men. The ratio of women to men is higher
- Age:- Multiple sclerosis mostly begins between the age of twenty and forty but it can develop at any age. it also can occur in childhood or later in life.
- Family History:- Family history can be another risk factor for MS. If in the family any member like parents or siblings had MS in the past then it may be a possibility that you will be diagnosed with MS.
- Climate:- MS happens most commonly in those countries that experience temperate climates, like the USA, Canada, Europe, New Zealand, and south-eastern Australia.
- Vitamin D:- If there is vitamin D deficiency and less exposure to the sun then there may be the chances of Multiple Sclerosis.
- Smoking:- A person who smokes has a higher chance of MS rather than a nonsmoker. so smoking tobacco is a higher risk factor for developing MS.
- Autoimmune Diseases:– If a person suffering from any kind of autoimmune disease then there is a higher risk of Multiple Sclerosis. autoimmune ailments for example type one diabetes, Inflammatory bowel syndrome, pernicious anemia, or psoriasis.
Diagnose Multiple Sclerosis:-
- Blood Test:- There is no particular blood test in general for Multiple Sclerosis. but blood tests are mainly performed to find out the other causes behind the symptoms.
- MRI Scan:- MRI generates a clear image of the inside of the body. with the help of this test, we can know if there is any scar or damage in the myelin sheath. this can confirm then the person has MS.
- Neurological test:- The neurologist does check your abnormalities such as weakness or any vision changes, eye movements, limb strength, reflexes, and coordination. this test indicates how much damage to nerves or it can result in MS
- Evoked Potential:- it is another test to determine Multiple sclerosis. this test has various types. the most common is to examine the proper working of your eyes. During this test, you will be shown light patterns and brain waves which are checked by using electrodes. there is no pain in this test. this test identifies whether the brain is taking longer time than usual to receive messages.
- Lumbar Puncture:- Lumber puncture is used to diagnose Multiple sclerosis. In this, a needle is injected into the lower back of the body to collect a sample of spinal fluid. this spinal fluid surrounds the brain and spinal cord if any irregularity or changes then it indicates a problem in the nervous system.
Treatment for Multiple Sclerosis:-
Treatment procedure may include the following
- Symptomatic Treatment:- Various medications can help manage specific symptoms which are associated with MS. Such as medications like baclofen can be prescribed to alleviate spasticity and muscle stiffness. medications for bladder, fatigue, pain, and depression also can be utilized to improve its symptoms.
- Disease-Modifying Therapies:- There are many medications for the long-term treatment of MS which are approved. these medicines help lessen the chances of major attacks and relapses. also, these medicines can stop the formation of new lesions on the brain and spinal cord.
- Counseling:- It is very emotional and frustrating with Chronic Ms. Multiple sclerosis can affect mental setup and affect on memory. that is why mental counseling is important to manage this disease.
- Rehabilitation Therapies:- For improving mobility, coordination, strength, and overall functioning physical therapy, speech therapy, and occupational therapy can play a very important role. these therapies will help to manage symptoms, enhance independence and provide strategies to do daily challenges.
- Relapse Controlling Medicines:- if any patients experience a severe MS attack then the neurologist will prescribe a higher dose of corticosteroids. with the help of these medicines, there is a quick inflammation decrease.
Tips for Managing Multiple Sclerosis:-
Here are a few tips that will help to manage this condition
- Healthy diet:- to manage MS it is highly recommended to have a balanced diet. in this diet, you have to consume vegetables, plenty of fresh fruits, healthy fats, and lean protein. you have to avoid unhealthy fats, added sugars, processed foods, etc
- Exercise:- Due to Multiple sclerosis you can feel muscle weakness, loss of balance, and difficulty in walking. so if you involve low-impact exercises, yoga, and swimming in your workout routine then it will definitely help in healthy muscles and physical function.
- Do not smoke and limitation on alcohol:- Smoking and alcohol can provide you with worse symptoms of MS. So to avoid the aggravation of this disease you should avoid smoking and limit the consumption of alcohol.
- Manage stress:– Stress impacts both emotional and physically. it causes difficulty in sleeping and worse MS-linked fatigue. so you have to manage your stress by using meditation, and yoga which will be helpful in managing MS.
Q1:- What are common early signs of multiple sclerosis?
Ans:- fatigue, numbness, tingling, stiffness or spasms, pain, etc
Q2:- Is multiple sclerosis curable?
Ans:- There’s currently no cure for multiple sclerosis (MS)
Q3:- At what age does MS start?
Ans:- between the ages of 20 and 40
Q4:- How to prevent multiple sclerosis?
Ans:-quitting smoking, maintaining moderate body weight, and getting enough vitamin D through diet or sun exposure