As its name, Oesophageal cancer occurs in the esophagus. it is a long, hollow tube that runs from the throat to the stomach. cancer is one the most dangerous disease which yet to get a curable treatment. this organ helps in swallowing and digesting food. oesophageal cancer can be severe and life-threatening cancer.
If you want to know about it then read this article till the end.
The Oesophagus wall is made of many layers of tissues like mucous membranes, muscles, and connective tissues. first, this cancer starts in the inner line of the Oesophagus and then it spreads to the outer layer then it grows.
so when these cells grow out of control they form a tumour in these tissues.
Types of Oesophageal Cancer:-
Mainly there are three common types of oesophageal cancer.
- Adenocarcinoma:- This type develops in the glandular cells which line the oesophagus. it releases fluids like mucus. this kind of condition is called Barrett’s Oesophagus which results in growing these cells. it contents from the stomach which includes acid and bile and can cause chronic inflammation.
- Squamous Cell Carcinoma:- This cancer forms in the flat. it cells form in a thin form lining of the oesophagus. it results in the cells overgrowing and after some time it becomes uncontrollable. it is linked with drinking and smoking.
- Small Cell Carcinoma:- This type of cancer is very rare, it develops from the neuroendocrine cells. these cells release hormones into the bloodstream in response to signals from nerves.
Oesophageal Cancer symptoms:-
This cancer is difficult to diagnose in its early stage because its symptoms show after some considerable period.
so below are some symptoms if you have any of the following symptoms then you should go to the healthcare experts.
- Swallowing problem
- The weight loss is not intentionally
- Burning chest and pain in the chest
- Heartburn issues
Oesophageal Cancer causes:-
There is no exact cause of oesophageal cancer but below are some risk factors that could be the reason for this cancer.
- Alcohol:- Those people who are addicted to chronic or who takes heavily consumption of alcohol may develop this cancer.
- Tobacco:- If you chew and smoke tobacco then there is a huge chance of developing this cancer. regular use of tobacco increases its risk.
- Exposure to chemicals:- Chemicals like dry-cleaning solvents and if you are exposed to these chemicals over a long period of time then might be possible to get this cancer.
- Medical history:- if anyone has any medical history of cancer in the head or neck then they might be more likely to develop this cancer.
- Other types of illness:- other types of illness also cause this cancer such as achalasia that causes swelling. apart from this tylosis causes excess skin growth on palms and feet
- HPV:- HPV infection called Human papillomavirus. HPV infection increases the risk of this cancer. this infection develops tissue changes in the mouth and vocal cords
- Barrett’s oesophagus:- The cells at the oesophagus lower end change because of Barrett’s oesophagus, usually occurring from chronic untreated acid reflux. also, those who have long-term heartburn may also get this cancer.
Oesophageal Cancer stages:-
Now hope you all get to know the basic idea of this disease, now we will discuss its stages. there are five stages of Oesophageal cancer
Stage 0:- In this stage, non-cancerous cells are found only in the layer of cells lining the oesophagus
Stage 1:- In this cancer cells found in the outer layer of the oesophagus
Stage 2:- In this stage, cancer reaches the oesophagus outer wall, and it may spread to one to two nearby lymph nodes.
Stage 3:- Cancer reaches deeper into the inner muscle layer and spreads beyond the oesophagus into surrounding organs and/or more lymph.
Stage 4:- Stage 4 of oesophageal cancer is the most advanced one, where cancer spreads to other organs in the body and/or to lymph nodes far from the oesophagus.
Oesophageal cancer risk:-
Tobacco users have high chances of getting this cancer but anyone can be at risk of developing this cancer. those people who regularly chew tobacco and smoke are at high risk of this cancer. moreover, those who have a family history of this cancer are also at high risk of getting this in the future.
Oesophageal Cancer Treatment:-
This cancer can be cured if it is diagnosed early. but there are low survival rates if this is diagnosed in the final stage of oesophageal cancer.
Below are some treatments
In this high energy x rays or radioactive substances are used for curing cancer. this beam of radiation used to aim at the tumour can kill the cancer cells in the body. this radiation interferes with the growth of cancer cells. thereby destroying them. also, these can be used after surgery to kill any remaining cancerous cells in the body.
Surgery is the most common treatment for oesophageal cancer. in this healthcare remove some parts of the oesophagus and some tissues around it. after that, they remove some lymph nodes too and check if they contain cancerous cells or not. surgery can cure it if this cancer does not spread beyond the oesophagus.
This therapy is mainly used before the surgery to shrink the tumour and control its symptoms. in this doctors use medicines to kill or stop the growth of cancer cells. usually, these medicines are transmitted into the bloodstream through a vein which is intravenous. but patients can also take these in the form of pills.
Endoscopic Laser Therapy:-
In this, it treats the advanced tumours that block the oesophagus. in this laser is used to cut a hole in the blockage. due to this patients enables to eat with improved swallowing
EDS or EMR:-
EDS stands for Endoscopic submucosal dissection and EMR stands for Endoscopic Mucosal Resection. These treatments are used to treat early tumours. in this doctors use endoscopy to remove these tumours from the body without removing the oesophagus.
PDT stands for Photodynamic Therapy. this treatment uses photoactive drugs which means the drugs are activated by non-thermal light. when these drugs absorb into the cancer cells then they destroy them inside the body. These symptoms can be removed from this cancer with this therapy, mainly the swallowing food problem.
There are no particular ways of preventing oesophageal cancer but there are some ways of reducing the risk of getting this cancer, these are as follows:-
- Healthy diet:- If you are taking a healthy diet then you can avoid this cancer. in your diet, you can include fruits and vegetables to improve your health conditions.
- Do not smoke and drink:- Those people who are addicted to drinking and smoking are at higher risk of this cancer. if you are used to these then you should reduce your daily consumption with the help of medications to avoid this type of cancer.
- Healthy weight:- if you want to avoid this cancer then you should maintain a healthy weight. so you can take a good diet and proper exercise to avoid being overweight and underweight.
Now hope you all got to know about this cancer, this cancer mainly attacks the oesophagus which is important for swallowing and digesting food. it can be curable if it is diagnosed early but if not then it becomes more dangerous.
Q1:- What are the first signs of oesophageal cancer?
Ans:- Trouble swallowing, Hoarseness, Weight loss, Chest pain etc
Q2:- What is the first stage of oesophagus cancer?
Ans:- cancer hasn’t spread beyond the thick muscle in the oesophagus wall.
Q3:- Who gets Oesophageal cancer?
Ans:- People between the ages of 45 and 70