Breast cancer is a big disease that should take seriously. this disease increasing due to lifestyles. so in this article, we will discuss all of What is Breast Cancer, its types, its symptoms, its causes, and its treatment. so stay tuned to this article to get to know full information about breast cancer.
What is Breast Cancer:-
All kinds of cancers are totally uncontrolled by the multiplication of the cells. the proliferation of the cells happens due to mutation in the genes that control cell growth. such as the common regions where breast cancer develops
- Glands that produce milk
- Ducts that carry milk to the nipple
- Fatty connective tissue
Breast cancer can also spread to other parts of the healthy breast. it can reach lymph nodes and if it reaches the lymph nodes then it can reach other regions of the body.
Types of Breast Cancer?
There are two types of Breast cancer one is invasive and the second is non-invasive
Invasive breast cancer spreads from the breast gland or duct to the other parts of the breast or body. and non-invasive cancers are centered around the breast gland or the duct. based on these two categories there are many types of breast cancer which are the following:-
Non-invasive Breast Cancer:-
There are two types of Non-invasive breast cancer which are following:
- Ductal Carcinoma in Situ:- this type of cancer is concentrated in the ducts. but if this cancer is untreated then it can be spread to the other tissues as well.
- Lobular Carcinoma in Situ:- this type of cancer is concentrated in the milk-producing glands. it can also spread to all different parts of the breast.
Invasive Breast Cancer:-
There are a total of eight types of invasive breast cancer which are the following:-
- Angiosarcoma:- this breast cancer occurs when cancer comes into the breast’s blood or lymph cells
- Inflammatory Breast Cancer:- in this breast cancer the symptoms are redness, and swelling in the breast. this cancer is not clear that how causes because it is believed that cancer starts in the lymph vessels of the skin.
- Invasive Ductal Carcinoma:- approx 85 percent invasive of breast cancer are of this type. it begins in the duct connecting the milk gland to the nipple. after it breaks through the duct wall, which invades healthy fatty tissues of the breast.
Invasive Lobular Carcinoma:-
Invasive lobular carcinoma is approx ten percent of invasive breast cancer. it begins in the milk gland and then spread to all other tissues of the body parts. it has many subtypes of cancer which are the following:-
- Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma:- this type of cancer is approx one percent of all breast cancer. in this cancer, the lymph node is a very important role. this type of cancer occurs in salivary glands
- Medullary Carcinoma:- in this breast cancer it refers to the soft structure of the tumor. that is why this cancer is considered a carcinoma with medullary features.
- Low-Grade Adenosquamous Carcinoma:- Metaplastic breast cancer is another extremely rare form of breast cancer. However, there can be lesions that are mistaken for cancer. Hence diagnosis will be performed extremely carefully.
- Mucinous Carcinoma:- Mucus is found in the stomach and the trachea which is a slippery and slimy secretion in the body.
- Papillary Carcinoma:- it mainly suffers those women who are suffering from menopause. finger-like projections and tumors are under in this type of cancer.
- Tubular Carcinoma: Tubular cancer gets its name from the tube shape of the cancer cell. It is a slow-growing type of cancer.
Male Breast Cancer:-
Men also have some breast tissue, which is why they can also get breast cancer. however, it is much rare in men rather than in women. men also get the same symptoms as women.
Metastatic Breast Cancer:-
It is also called stage 4 of breast cancer which spread to the other parts of the body. that is why it can reach bone, liver, and lungs. metastatic breast cancer is an advanced level of cancer so the doctor needs to take an immediate treatment plan to rectify its symptoms.
Paget’s Disease of the Nipple:-
This type of cancer grows in the duct of the nipple. it affects the areola, which is surrounding the nipple.
Phyllodes Tumours of the Breast:-
It is a rare type of cancer type which grows in the connective tissue of the breast. it can be benign or cancerous.
Triple-Negative Breast Cancer:-
It affects near about 15 to 20 percent of the population with breast cancer. if this should be diagnosed then the tumor must have 3 characteristics which are
- Lack of oestrogen receptors that bind to the oestrogen hormone. Oestrogen plays a dominant role in stimulating breast cancer cells to grow.
- There is a lack of progesterone receptors that attach to the cell.
- It shouldn’t have HER2 proteins on the surface of the tumor.
it is known as triple-negative because the protein which is oestrogin , HER2, and progesterone should not be present in the tumor.
the cancer symptoms may vary in all these kinds of cancer so you should read all these subtypes.
Stages of Breast Cancer:-
it totally depends on how much the cancer cells and the tumor size spread these conditions are divided into five stages of breast cancer.
- Check whether the cancer is invasive or non-invasive
- Tumor size
- lymph nodes are compromised or involved
- Is cancer spread to other tissues or organs of the breast?
the stage of breast cancer are the following:-
ductal carcinoma in situ referred to as stage 0. this is the beginning of the stage of breast cancer where cancer cells do not spread further into the milk ducts.
it is divided into two types which:-
- Stage 1 A:- The primary tumor size is less than 2 cm in width. their lymph nodes not affect.
- Stage 1B:- The tumor is small than 2 cm or may be not present. in this cancer cells are present nearby lymph nodes.
Stage 2 breast cancer is divided into two types.
- Stage 2A:- the breast cancer tumor is less than 2 cm in this stage. but it might be spread from one to 3 nearby lymph nodes. it may go to 5 cm. but further it has not spread to any lymph nodes. that is why it is known as stage 2A.
- Stage 2B:- If the breast cancer tumor is between 2 and 5 cm and has spread to 1 or 3 underarm lymph nodes, it is known as stage 2B cancer. Moreover, there can be other classifications. For example, the tumor can also be larger than 5 cm, but lymph nodes are surprisingly clear of cancer.
Stage 3 has 3 subcategories
- Stage 3A:- In this sub-stage, the primary tumor can be of any size. Moreover, breast cancer has spread from 4 armpit lymph nodes to 9 armpit lymph nodes. Further, the internal mammary lymph nodes may be enlarged.
- Stage 3B:- This stage is quite an advanced stage where the tumor has cut into the chest wall or skin. Breast cancer may have affected up to 9 lymph nodes.
- Stage 3C: Breast cancer cells are found in 10 or more armpit or collarbone lymph nodes. It may even be found in the internal mammary nodes.
The worst-case scenario is stage 4 cancer, where the primary tumor may be of any size. However, the distinguishing factor is that cancer should have spread to distant parts of the body. Further, it may have also spread to near and distant lymph nodes.
Symptoms of Breast Cancer:-
it depends on the type of breast cancer. this is unfortunate that there are no symptoms found in the earliest stage of breast cancer.
so it is advised to both men and women should go to regular check-ups to detect the disease at its early stage. it can be cured if it is diagnosed in the early stage. after that feeling of lumps on the breast does not give the correct result so a mammogram is advised to get the correct result.
There are some common symptoms of breast cancer which are:-
- Blood discharge from the nipple
- Swelling in the parts of the breast
- Inversion of nipple
- Pain in the breast region
- Red over the breast region
- Unexplained change in the size of the breast
- Change the skin of the breast
Causes of Breast Cancer:-
Mainly there are two causes of breast cancer. first due to abnormal cell growth or there any history of genetics.
Abnormal growth of cells in gland and duct cells:-
The main reason for breast cancer is the abnormal growth of the cells in the gland and duct. if cancer cells enter lymph nodes they may spread to other parts of the body.
There approx 10 to 15 percent of breast cancer may be by hereditary causes. genetic is also responsible for breast cancer. breast cancer gene 1(BRCA1) and breast cancer gene 2(BRCA2) increase the risk of breast cancer also ovarian cancer.
some other factors are:-
- early starting of the period
- Menopause at an older age
- child after the age of 30
so these are some of the risk factors cause breast cancer.
Diagnose Breast Cancer:-
There are chances of survival if breast cancer is diagnosed early. every woman should go for regular checkups to identify breast cancer at its earliest. the doctor will prescribe some tests. below are some tests:-
in this physical examination doctor mostly feel the breast or under the arms of lumps swelling or thickening.in this test, the person has to sit or stand with stretched arms above her or one side. but this test can not give any conclusion so the patient should undergo with biopsy or Imaging test.
In biopsy there, some take some tissue parts and send those to check the presence of cancerous cells. A biopsy can provide some result
- Type of cancer
- Breast cancer is hormone-sensitive or not
so a biopsy is best to get the conclusion.
There are many imaging tests that doctors prescribed these are:-
- Mammogram:- mammogram is the initial test for breast cancer. it is the same as an x-ray. this test might not show lumps. but the doctor will take another test which is a biopsy.
- MRI:- In this, the test takes different images of the breast and then combines them all. this test might be taken as a follow-up to an ultrasound or maybe a mammogram.
- Ultrasound:- Ultrasound also gives some conclusion results. it differentiates between the fluid in a cyst and solid mass using sound waves.
So these tests can conclude the result of breast cancer.
Treatment for Breast Cancer:-
A doctor can decide on the treatment of breast cancer on the basis of:-
- Stage of the cancer
- Type of cancer
- Health condition
- Hormones sensitivity
There is some treatment for breast cancer.
Some drugs are used for the treatment of certain types of cancer. drugs like Herceptin, Avastin, Tykerb, and many more.
If their cancer cells spread then the doctor prescribes chemotherapy. the doctor may also prescribe chemotherapy either before or after the surgery if they see fit.
There is some breast cancer that depends on the growth of hormones. such as ER and PR-positive cancer are treated in this manner. Doctors will prescribe this course of action to those whose cancer responds to hormones.
There are some hormone-blocking medications are:-
- Aromatase inhibitors
this doctor prescribes after one month of therapy. the main purpose of this test target the remaining tumor cells and destroy them.
Surgery for breast cancer is to remove lumps or both breasts. the removal of lumps is known as lumpectomy. and if the breast parts remove or the full breast is removed is called a mastectomy. there are three types of mastectomy which are:-
- Sentinel node biopsy
- Axillary lymph node dissection
Always discuss with a doctor before choosing any action because these above forms of treatment have risks.
Prevention of Breast cancer:-
There are many cancer prevention methods but those methods are not foolproof. but below are some guidelines to help in reducing a person’s risk of any type of breast cancer.
- Every woman should go with mammograms and regular checkups to diagnose breast cancer in its early stage. Women should also try the examination of their breasts by themselves.
- Exercise daily
- if the person taking any hormone therapy after menopause. then they should consult a doctor.
- Diet (Healthy diet) helps to decrease the chances of breast cancer.
- That person who at high risk of breast cancer. might be possible to go in breast removal and ovary removal surgery.
if we talk in summary then cancer symptoms may be some false alarm of breast cancer. all lumps are not cancerous cells. also if there is some swelling or thickening does not mean it is breast cancer. consult a doctor is the best solution to check up and further take the treatment.
breast cancer symptoms are worrying, there is a high chance of survival. if it is detected early can be cured. so it is suggested to have regular check-ups and mammograms to detect the disease at its early stage.
Q1:- How to check breast cancer?
Ans:- Breast ultrasound, mammogram, biopsy.
Q2:- What age does breast cancer start?
Ans:- mostly Afer age of 50
Q3:- What is the early stage of breast cancer?
Ans:- Breast cancer that has not spread beyond the breast lymph nodes
Q4:- What is Stage 1 breast cancer?
Ans:- the cancer is small and only in the breast tissue or it might be found in lymph nodes close to the breast.