Glaucoma is a type of eye disease that is due to a low intake of nutrients and vitamins. any type of disorder which creates high pressure in the eyes which results in this disease. first, this disease affects the optic nerve then it goes to blindness and another kind of optical issues.
in this article, you will learn all about What is Glaucoma, its Types, Symptoms, Causes, Risks, and Treatment. so stay tuned for this article.
What is Glaucoma:-
It is a disease that harms the optical nerve and hampers vision. when the area in which the eye fluid or aqueous humor drains out mean drainage angle does not function properly, due to this it causes high pressure in the eyes and results in Glaucoma. this disease is basically due to genetics or in older age.
in this disease there is no pain, it causes loss of vision. it can be curable if it is diagnosed at the correct time. and vision can be returned back also.
Types of Glaucoma:-
Below are the types of Glaucoma.
Primary Open-angle Glaucoma:-
When the optic nerve is blocked then this basic form of the disease occurs. there is no pain and this process is very slow. in the early stage, it will not affect the vision. those people who have weak optic nerve are a high chance of this type of Glaucoma. but if you go to the doctor for regular checkups of your eyes then it can reveal the symptoms of this disease.
Those people who have an iris close to the drainage angle in their eyes can have this type of Glaucoma. In this Iris blocks the drainage channels, and due to this eye gets a shock of high pressure. in this, the patients can face pain and other types of complications. so in this situation, you should consult your doctor immediately.
It happens when there is low pressure in the eye due to low fluid production. the range in this remains low to normal. it then develops these signs of Glaucoma which damage the optic nerve and blind spots.
It is due to any injury, medication, accidents, eye inflammation, etc. This also attacks the optic nerve and results in loss of vision.
When pigmentary granules which are in the iris break off to eye fluid which is Aqueous humor and block the drainage channel then this type occurs which is Pigmentary Glaucoma. the deposition of pigments can be due to heavy jogging sometimes.
When the outer layer from the eyes lens peels off and sets in between the angle of the cornea and Iris, then it blocks the drainage channels and results in Glaucoma. this type is also known for causing high eye pressure.
This condition can occur due to some health issues like diabetes. there is an abnormal growth of new blood vessels on the Iris and over the drainage canals which causes blockage and high pressure of fluid inside the eyes. That is why it harms optic nerves and gives results in Glaucoma.
This condition is due the eye injury which damages the optic nerves. there are some symptoms in the early stage and then after many years.
This condition is usually due to inflammation from different drugs. it gives some irritation near the Iris of the eye canal which causes channel blockage and then give result in Glaucoma.
Causes of Glaucoma:-
The main reason for this disease is due to damage to optic nerves. when these optic nerves are blocked then a fluid which is aqueous humor does not flow properly. that is why it causes extra pressure into the eyes and harms optic nerves which give result in Glaucoma.
- There is any family history of this disease
- Age factor
- Thin Corneas
- Having any health condition like heart disease, diabetes, and high blood pressure
Signs and Symptoms of Glaucoma:-
In its early stage, the open angle Glaucoma does not show any symptoms. but there are some other types that can show some symptoms which are the following:-
- Pressure on the eye and pain
- Blurred vision
- Redness on eye
- Blind Spots
- Tunnel vision
- Rainbow-colored ring around lights
- Any eye drops for a long time
- Long-time steroid medicines
- Intraocular pressure
- Eye issues over the age of 45
If there are any early signs of Glaucoma then you should visit an eye specialist. there is some sign like blurred vision and eye pain. but if you do not see any of these signs then also you should visit for a regular eye checkup to avoid any circumstances. below are some diagnosis process
- Go to the opthalmologist and he or she will check the eye pressure
- The doctor will check the optic nerves
- The doctor will check the drainage angle of the eye
- The doctor will check the side vision
- The thickness of the cornea
- The size of the optic nerve
Treatments for Glaucoma:-
If there is proper medication in its early stage then this disease can be curable. usually, for lower eye pressure, there are eye drops that can reduce the chances of this disease. there are some eye drops that can reduce the flow of Aqueous humor which decrease eye pressure.
There are many side effects of medication that never suit all patients. They can add some other regular medicines for reaction. it is advised to all first consult the doctor before starting any medicine or stopping any medicine for Glaucoma.
Taking all medicine then there is the last method of surgery which involves the below processes.
- Glaucoma Drainage Devices:- in this process, the doctor can implant a fluid collector device into the eyes for the collection of excess fluid. This device provides fluids to a separate reservoir and can lower the pressure of the eyes. In this process, doctors mostly generate reservoirs beneath the conjunctiva where blood vessels absorb the fluid.
- Trabeculectomy:- for lowering eye pressure the doctor makes a hole which is a tiny hole in the sclera and a bleb in the conjunctiva and it remains hidden in the upper eyelid. the fluid comes via the hole and absorbs into the blood vessels which are around the bleb.
- Cataract Surgery:- for the fluid to come out properly then in this surgery the doctor operates the eyes to fix the angle of the Iris and cornea by removing the eye’s original lens.
- Laser Surgery:- there are two types of laser surgery which are the following:-
- Trabeculoplasty:- In this surgery, the doctor fixes the angles of the drainage canals so that the fluid comes out properly. this treatment is for open-angle Glaucoma.
- Iridotomy:- in this surgery, the doctor makes a little hole in the Iris which helps in draining the eye fluid in a proper way.
- Regular checkups:- those aged below 40 should go for checkups of the eyes every 5 to 10 years. those aged between 40 to 55 should go for check-ups every 2 to 4 years. and those ages between 55 to 65 should go every 1 to 4 years. and finally if ages are above 65 should go every 1 year for checkups.
- Exercise in a proper way:- a moderate type of exercise can reduce the pressure on the eye and reduce the chances of Glaucoma. but first, consult the doctor
- Eye protection:- Before playing any sports and going out in sunlight you should take eye protection tools which can help in avoiding any accidents and inflammation in the eyes.
- Family health issues:- if is there any family history of Glaucoma you should be extra cautious with your optical health.
- Stop medication in between:- Do not stop any eye drop in between you may face serious consequences afterward. so you should first end the course of medicines for preventing Glaucoma.
We hope now you have a full idea of what is Glaucoma, what are its symptoms how to prevent and can treat it properly. in summary, we can say that in its early stage, this disease is not too harmful. but proper diagnosis can reduce its effects. so you should consult an eye specialist to know about more these diseases.
Q1:- What is the main cause of glaucoma?
Ans:- damage to the optic nerve
Q2:- Who is at risk of glaucoma?
Ans:- It is based on age. it affects older ones mostly.
Q3:- What age does glaucoma start?
Ans:- After 40 Years
Q4:- How can glaucoma Reduce naturally?
Ans:- Avoid smoking, Maintain a healthy weight
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