What is Prostate Cancer – 5 Types of Prostate Cancer, symptoms, treatment and causes

According to a study out of 10 men, there are 6 older men mostly develop prostate cancer. if you want to know all about What is Prostate Cancer,  then read this article till the end.

What is Prostate Cancer:-

The prostate is a small gland which present in men’s pelvis.  its primary function is to produce semen. Prostate cancer occurs when the cells in the prostate gland start to grow uncontrollably, forming a tumour.

Causes of Prostate Cancer:-

There are no particular reasons for prostate cancer but some researchers have found the following risk factors:-

  • Age:-

Those aged more than 50 years are more likely to suffer from prostate cancer. its risk increases with age. near about 60 to 70 per cent of people who are above 65 years are diagnosed with prostate cancer.

  • Family History:-

Prostate cancer mostly develops because of inherited genes, environmental factors, or lifestyle. there is rare Hereditary prostate cancer but it can start if any of the following situations are present:-

  1. If more than two close family relatives for example uncle, grandparent, and nephew were diagnosed with prostate cancer before the age of 55
  2. If more than three first-degree family members such as parents, siblings, and child were diagnosed with prostate cancer.

lifestyle choices and habits may influence the risk of developing prostate cancer. These include a diet high in red meat and processed foods, obesity, smoking, lack of physical activity, and exposure to certain chemicals or toxins.

Types of Prostate Cancer:-

  • Ductal Adenocarcinoma:-

This variant of prostate cancer has a distinct appearance under the microscope, with the cancer cells forming large, irregular duct-like structures. It can be more aggressive and have a higher risk of spreading beyond the prostate.

  • Acinar Adenocarcinoma:-

It develops in the glands cells of the prostate.

  • Small Cell Prostate Cancer:-

It is neuroendocrine cancer that is composed of small round cancer cells.

  • Squamous Cell Cancer:-

This type of cancer develops from the flat cells covering the prostate.

  • Transitional Cell Cancer:-

    It develops in the cells lining the urethra. This is the tube that carries the urine outside the body. It may spread into the bladder and other tissues.

    What is Prostate Cancer
  • Symptoms of Prostate Cancer:-

Early symptoms:-

  • Pain during urination
  • Burning experience
  • Reduced flow of urine
  • Urination at night
  • Blood in urine and semen

Advanced signs:-

  • Bone pain
  • Numb legs, feet, or hips
  • Enlargement of pelvis or legs

Symptoms After Undergoing Treatment

  • Tiredness
  • Lower back pain
  • Jaundice
  • Breath difficulties
  • Blood in the urine
  • Urine difficulties
What is Prostate Cancer

Stages of Prostate Cancer:-

You should know the stages which help the doctor to assess how much cancer has spread to the body. there are two types of stages to determine the spread of prostate cancer

  • Clinical staging:-

With the help of this test such as DRA, PSE or Gleason score decide whether there is any requirement for any imaging test or not. the doctor will perform the following imaging tests

  1. X-ray
  2. MRI
  3. PET
  4. Biopsy
  5. Ultrasound

These imaging tests will help the doctor determine the cancer stage

Patahlogy staging:-

In this doctor operates out from a patient body to check the test of prostrate tumours through surgery and laboratory tests


This is the most popular staging system to determine prostate cancer. The doctors use this system to find out some answers

  • Tumour:- to find out the size of the primary tumour and which location in the body
  • Node:- To check whether the tumour reached the lymph nodes or not or if yes then how much has it reached
  • Metastasis:- How much cancer spread to the other parts of the body

Apart from TNM, doctors also assign some other tests to check the cancer stage such as

  • PSA levels
  • Gleason score
What is Prostate Cancer

Gleason Score in Prostate Cancer:-

When a doctor takes the biopsy result of a prostate tumour then it decided the Gleason score. this score was also assigned based on cancer cells’ growth, their location and their spread level. based on these results doctors give a score range between 6 to 10. now will discuss what each scale tells about the state of cancer tissue

  • Gleason Score:-

  1. Six Gleason score means well-differentiated and healthy cells
  2. A seven Gleason score means it is moderately differentiated and similar to healthy cells
  3. If the score is eight, nine or ten then it means poorly differentiated and the cells are not healthy.

Those patients who have high Gleason scores should take immediate action for treatment even though cancer has not spread much to the other parts of the body.

What is Prostate Cancer
  1. Age between 55 to 69
  2. Any family history associated with other risk factors

Now on the basis of these tests, doctors assign you the following stages:-

Stage I

  1. II B:- Gleason score is 6
  2. II C:- Gleason score is 7 or 8

Stage III

In this stage, the cancer cell still does not spread into the other parts of the body. it is divided into 3 broad categories

  1. A- In this stage the cancer cells do not spread outside the prostate or reached lymph nodes. the Gleason score is 8 or below and the PSA level is 20ng/ml or above
  2. B- In this stage the cancer cells spread to seminal vesicles and tissue around them. its Gleason score is similar to stage III A stage and the PSA Levels can be of any levels
  3. C- In this stage cancer cells may or may not reach lymph nodes and other parts of the body. Gleason’s score is nine to ten and the PSA levels also can be of any levels

Stage IV

It is the final stage of prostate cancer and in this, it spread to the other parts of the body. in this the survival rate which is 5 years reduced to 30 per cent. Gleason score and the PSA levels can be any in this stage. it is divided into two subcategories

  1. A- In this stage cancer spread only to the lymph nodes
  2. B- In this stage cancer spread to lymph and other body organs

What is Prostate Cancer

Treatments for Prostate Cancer:-

After diagnosis, the doctors prescribe the treatment on the basis of following

  • PSA levels in the blood
  • Stage of cancer
  • Sexual function and Urinary
  • Lifestyle and any history of medical

Below following treatments for each stage

Monitoring and waiting:-

After performing a biopsy and checking PSA levels the doctors monitor the patient. in this, only watchful waiting and doctors perform no tests. doctors can proceed only when they see any symptoms of prostate cancer develop. doctors recommend this for only older adults who are likely to live less than five years.

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